frequent sites of involvement are the lower trunk (Figure 220.2 [B]) or
a combination of T1 roots and C8 ventral ramus (Figure 220.2 [A]).
Figure 220.2.— Site of injury in Klumpke palsy. [A] Root of T1 and spinal nerve of C8. [B] Lower trunk. The green lines at T1 represent the most frequent origin of sympathetic fibers for the eyes. (PS): paraspinal muscles; (R): rhomboid muscle; DS: dorsoscapular nerve; LT: long thoracic nerve; (SA): serratus anterior muscle; (SS): supraspinal muscle; (IS): infraspinal muscle; SPS: suprascapular nerve; PL: pectoral lateralis nerve; (P): pectoralis muscle; PM: pectoralis medialis nerve; SF: sympathetic fibers to the eyes; (M of M): muscle of Müller; (DP): dilator pupillary muscle; (TM): teres major muscle; (SBS): subscapularis muscle; SBS: subscapularis nerves; TD: thoracodorsal nerve; (LD): latissimus dorsi muscle; MC: musculocutaneous nerve; (Bi): biceps muscle; (Br): brachialis muscle; M: median nerve; U: ulnar nerve; A: axillary nerve; (TMi): teres minor muscle; (D): deltoid muscle; R: radial nerve.