The diagnosis of congenital
toxoplasmosis is established by specific serum IgM-enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay. Neonates with congenital toxoplasmosis should be treated. The
treatment of choice is pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Treatment should
be continued for 1 year. Neonates with chorioretinitis or cerebrospinal
fluid protein above 100 mg/dL should probably receive corticosteroids.
rubella syndrome is not a frequent cause of congenital microcephaly. Microcephaly
usually develops during infancy. Congenital rubella presents with cardiac
disease (peripheral pulmonary stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, and
myocardial necrosis); ocular abnormalities (cataracts, salt and pepper
chorioretinitis, and microphthalmia); and deafness. Congenital rubella
syndrome is most likely to occur in neonates infected
in the first trimester of pregnancy. Seizures and irritability may also
be present. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis is present in most patients.
The diagnosis is established by specific serum IgM-enzyme-linked immunosorbent