Due to Systemic Illness
is a frequent complication of systemic illness in neonates.
Infections, anemia, patent ductus arteriosus, inborn errors of metabolism,
hypoglycemia, hypermagnesemia, and many other conditions may present with
apnea in the neonatal period. Systemic illnesses usually produce central
Due to Pulmonary Disease
disease may produce prolonged expiratory apnea. Prolonged expiratory apnea
is characterized by absence of airflow into the lungs in the absence of
upper airway obstruction despite effective inspiratory and expiratory
chest and abdominal movements judged by esophageal pressure changes. The
apnea occurs during wakefulness (crying and feeding) or during sleep.
The apnea as it appears on polysomnogram is obstructive.
Bilateral pneumothorax and pneumonia may be associated with apnea.