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Aicardi syndrome occurs only in females and consists of absence of the corpus callosum, subcortical and periventricular heterotopias, and lacunar chorioretinopathy (Figure 52.1). Neonates with seizures due to neuronal heterotopia should be treated with antiepileptic drugs. Surgical treatment should be considered if neuronal heterotopia is localized. More about...281


Figure 52.1. Aicardi syndrome. [A] Midline T1 sagittal MRI of the brain demonstrates agenesis of the corpus callosum, interhemispheric cyst, large occipital ventricle; [B] T1 axial MRI of the brain demonstrates colpocephaly and loculated interhemispheric cyst; [C] lacunar chorioretinopathy (no hyperpigmentation spot inside the punched out white-yellow areas).

Intracranial Hemorrhage
Intracranial hemorrhage may produce seizures. Intracranial hemorrhage may be due to trauma, infarct, coagulation disturbances, vascular defects, or cerebral tumors. Coagulation studies, including CBC with differential and platelets, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen index, and proteins S and C levels, should be performed. Intracranial hemorrhages are classified according to the location of the largest amount of blood as subdural, subarachnoid, parenchymal, and intraventricular. The age of the hematoma can be determined by analyzing the MRI appearance of the blood collection (Figure 52.2).

Figure 52.2. MRI appearance of hemorrhage. This pattern of changes varies with location, source, pulse sequence, and field strength.


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braistem interhemisphere cyst enlarged right occipital horn of the ventriculus lateralis (colpocephaly) large left venticulus lateralis loculated interhemisphere cyst colpocephaly secondary to large trigone and occipital horn of the  ventriculus lateralis optic disc lacunar chorioretinipathy (punched out white -yellow area without any hyperpigmented spots) lacunar choroiretinopathy (punched out white area without any hyperpigmented spots) Click on figure for animated labels.  Pause pointer on different areas of the figure for labels. Figure must be centered.